The Global Political Economy of a Green Transition

G. Galanis, G. Ricchiuti, B. Tippet (2022) WP22/2022 DISEI Universita’ degli Studi di Firenze

By building a simple discrete choice model, we study possible paths regarding country participation in international environmental agreements (IEAs) on climate change. Preferences for action are influenced by (i) the growth rate of emissions, (ii) participation of others in IEAs, and (iii) heterogeneous costs and preferences for action. We find a variety of outcomes depending on the relative strength of effects, where sustained high level of cooperation is just one possibility. More specifically, we find that a short run increase in climate action may be followed by a decline later, while non trivial dynamics that make the evolution less predictable are another possibility. Our results indicate that a reduction in global inequalities related to low carbon transition costs are a necessary condition for sustained high levels of cooperation.

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State Space Model to Detect Cycles in Heterogeneous Agents Models

Gusella F., Ricchiuti G. (2021)
WP10/2021 DISEI Università di Firenze

We propose an empirical test to depict possible endogenous cycles within Heterogeneous Agent Models (HAMs). We consider a 2-type HAM into a standard small-scale dynamic asset pricing framework. On the one hand, fundamentalists base their expectations on the deviation of fundamental value from market price expecting a convergence between them. On the other hand, chartists, subject to self-fulling moods, consider the level of past prices and relate it to the fundamental value acting as contrarians. These pricing strategies, by their nature, cannot be directly observed but can cause the response of the observed data. For this reason, we consider the agents’ beliefs as unobserved state components from which, through a state space model formulation, the heterogeneity of fundamentalist-chartist trader cycles can be mathematically derived and empirically tested. The model is estimated using the S&P500 index, for the period 1990-2020 at different time scales, specifically, daily, monthly, and quarterly.

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The Internationalization of State-Owned Enterprises: An Analysis of cross-border M&As

Clò S., Marvasi E., Ricchiuti G. (2021)
WP06/2021 DISEI Universita’ degli Studi di Firenze

Using a database of more than 100,000 M&As, we study the internationalization of State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) in the 21st century, and the underlying firm-level and country-level drivers. Meaningful differences are found – compared to private enterprises and across various types of SOEs as well – along many dimensions, including the time trend, the geographical-sectoral coverage, and firms’ proprietary structure. Majority-owned SOEs are more focused on domestic markets, while State-Invested Enterprises and government-backed financial institutions are more internationalized. SOEs’ internationalization has been less affected by the Great Financial Crisis, it is less sensitive to geographical and cultural proximity, it involves countries with a lower institutional quality and which are more peripheral in the world trade network.

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Linking FDI Network Topology with the Covid-19 Pandemic

Antonietti R., De Masi G., Ricchiuti G. (2020)
WP18/2020 DISEI Università di Firenze

Globalization has considerably increased the movement of people and goods around the world, which constitutes a key channel of viral infection. Increasingly close economic links between countries speeds up the transfer of goods and information, and the knock-on effect of economic crises, but also the transmission of diseases. Foreign direct investment (FDI), in particular, establishes clear ties between countries of origin and destination, and it is along these chains that contagious phenomena can unfold. In this paper, we investigate whether countries with more central positions in the global production network have higher COVID-19 infection and mortality rates. We merge data on EU-28 outward FDI with data on COVID-19 per capita infection and death rates to analyze their association with the topology of the FDI network. Our estimates reveal that countries most exposed to the COVID-19 outbreak are those characterized by a more central role in the global production network. This result is robust to the use of alternative measures of network centrality, and to the possible influence of the 2008 financial crisis on the structure of the global production network. We also find that exposure to the pandemic increases with the centrality of a country in the FDI network of certain industries, including business machinery and equipment, business services, real estate, tourism and transport.

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Heterogeneous Firms and International Trade: The role of productivity and financial fragility

Assenza T., Delli Gatti D., Grazzini J., Ricchiuti G. (2016)
CESifo Working Paper Series 5959, CESifo Group Munich

Starting from the premise that productivity is heterogeneous across firms, Melitz (2003) explains why individual productivity is key in determining the capability of a firm to export. In this paper we build a model along Melitz’s lines to show that also financial capacity, captured by the level of individual net worth, affects the behaviour of firms on international markets. We show that firms with low productivity may still be able to penetrate foreign markets provided they have enough net worth to incur the cost of exporting. In this setting, we explore the effects of changes in transport costs, fixed costs for exporters and of financial constraints.

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The Survival of Tuscan Firms

Randelli F. and Ricchiuti G. (2015)
WP02/2015 DISEI Università di Firenze

Social Capital and Firm’s Productivity in Italy: a Multilevel Approach

Nerozzi S., Pipitone V. and Ricchiuti G. (2014)
WP28/2014 DISEI Università di Firenze

Matching and merging different databases, we study how firm’s productivity is affected by individual characteristics and provincial context conditions in Italy. Mainly, we focus on the relation between social capital, in its different forms and dimensions and calculated at provincial level and firms’ productivity, calculated using the non-parametric DEA approach. We find that exporting, self-financing firms, and firms belonging to groups, are more productive. In particular, Cooperative firms are more productive than limited company. Moreover, the variables capturing the social capital show strong positive correlation with firms’ productivity, indicating that a widespread civism intended as pro-social behavior independent of specific interpersonal bounds, seems to create an economic environment which is more favorable to entrepreneurship and collaboration among firms, since it increases interpersonal trust, lowers transaction costs, enhances the compliance of formal or informal rules of fairness and fosters a more transparent, impartial and efficient working of the public administration.

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A Note on Taxation and Long Term Equilibrium in a Model of Endogenous Lifetime and Economic Growth

Naimzada A., Ricchiuti G. and Tramontana (2012)
mimeo, Università di Firenze

Public policy and tragic choice: when the policy can reach happiness

Bellanca N. and Ricchiuti G. (2007)
presented at the International Conference Policies for Happiness, Siena, 14-16 June, mimeo

Theoretical and Empirical Issues in Assessing Exchange Market Pressure for Developing Countries

Bertoli S. and Ricchiuti G. (2005)
FEDRA Working Paper, Dipartimento di Statistica, Università degli Studi di Firenze

This paper attempts to highlight the shortcomings in the application of the Exchange Market Pressure index, developed by Eichengreen et al. [1994], to the study of currency crises in developing countries. The main innovation of this index relies on its ability to signal those pressures on a currency that are softened or warded off through monetary authorities’ interventions, thus avoiding a bias in the selection of crisis episodes due to the missing observation of unsuccessful speculative attacks, as it would happen if the selection rested merely on nominal exchange rate movements. Different kinds of problems in adopting this index have been detected. First, we discuss the statistical issues that arise with the use of an index with a multi-dimensional informational basis. We point out how arbitrary, and often hidden, choices are required to aggregate the information conveyed by the three components of the index. Then, we highlight the ad hoc assumptions introduced to build a binary crisis variable that is based on the EMP. In an attempt to tackle the problems to which the indirect use of the EMP gives rise to, we propose a different rule for the identification of crisis episodes. The proposed crisis identification rule retains the spatial relativity introduced by Eichengreen et al. [1994], but it differentiates from their definition as it is also characterized by temporal relativity and by the independence of the identification of past observations from future values of the index. In a preliminary attempt to show how methodological choices do matter and are able to affect the econometric analysis on currency crises determinants, we finally employ data from a sample of 26 countries – that comprises both developed and emerging economies – to test the sensitivity of the EMP index and of the crisis indicator with respect to issues that we are raised in this paper.

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Child Trafficking in Africa and Europe: a Multi-Country Analysis

Ricchiuti G., Rossi A. and Wenke D. (2005)
mimeo UNICEF – Innocenti Research Centre, presented at the Childhoods Conference 2005, Oslo, (Norway) 29 giugno 3 luglio 2005

Un Modello Caotico di Determinazione del Tasso di Cambio in presenza di Interventi sul mercato dei Cambi e afflussi di Capitale

Naimzada A. e Ricchiuti G. (2004)
working paper n.82, Dipartimento di Economia Politica, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, novembre 2004

Nel presente lavoro abbiamo costruito un modello di determinazione del tasso di cambio in presenza di agenti eterogenei (Banca Centrale, Investitori e Market Makers). Ampie fluttuazioni del tasso di cambio sono il risultato di dinamica endogena, in particolare scaturiscono dall’interazione della Banca Centrale, che interviene per stabilizzare il cambio intorno ad un livello obiettivo, e gli investitori-chartisti che guardano al differenziale fra il tasso di interesse interno ed estero. Per completare il modello, si è effettuato uno studio specifico assumendo che il comportamento degli agenti sia rappresentato da una funzione sigmoidale.

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Empirical Evidence on the North-South Trade Flows: an Augmented Gravity Model

Ricchiuti G. (2003)
mimeo, Università degli Studi di Firenze,

Gli effetti dell’apertura del Conto Capitale sul tasso di cambio reale

Ricchiuti G. (2003)
Università degli Studi di Firenze, mimeo

Diversificazione delle esportazioni e crescita in Paesi Ricchi di Risorse Naturali

Ricchiuti G. (2002)
Università degli Studi di Firenze, mimeo

Argentina: dalle politiche populiste alla crisi del currency board

Ricchiuti G. (2001)
Università degli Studi di Firenze, mimeo